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New dog parents are often eager to introduce their dog to new friends of both the two legged and four legged varietals. Luckily, we are aware of the importance of socialization and there’s a lot of information out there that emphasizes the need to do so early in your dog’s life (or as early as you have come into your dog’s life). This does not mean, however, that we should make these introductions with haste and lack of management. It’s just as important, if not more important, that these meetings are set up carefully and that they go smoothly and are overall a positive experience for all involved. Even when bringing a new dog home to an existing pet, giving them space and time to acclimate can go a long way. Your current dog or cat may not be thrilled about sharing a home, or may be overjoyed to the point of frightening the new house guest. Whatever the scenario, it’s best to ease your dog into these introductions. Using baby gates to create safe spaces, closely monitoring interactions with lots of positive feedback (calmness, petting, treats, etc.) and separating whenever one of the parties seems overwhelmed are great techniques to ensure a positive experience. If the other animal happens to be a cat, create spaces to which the cat can escape such as shelves or counters above the dog’s reach. You can also designate certain areas in the house that are only for the cat or only for the dog to ensure a place they feel safe.

Some dogs may be easily overwhelmed by human attention. Make sure that anyone who wants to greet your dog does so in a calm, non-threatening manner. If your dog seems stressed, have them back off. Throwing treats, crouching down, using a calm voice, avoiding eye contact and turning sideways or with your back towards the dog are all ways to appear less threatening. With other dogs outside of the house, introduce first with a barrier such as a fence or on a leash so that you can move away from the other dog if you see signs of stress. Circle in towards the other dog as it is less threatening than walking straight up. Avoid dogs that are over aroused and already jumping or pulling at the end of the leash as these bad manners may stress your dog out. As long as the experiences your dog has are monitored and stay positive, the more meet and greets you do, the better!

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Playing with other dogs is a great outlet for energy and companionship! After all, dogs are social beings, an important part of what makes them such good partners for us humans. Most of us strive to socialize our dogs and take advantage of opportunities for them to play with others. Not all dogs, however, know how to play nice 100% of the time. It’s important to be aware of play styles that might lead to a negative encounter for your dog or his/her playmate. Once you learn when to intervene in playtime, you can better control the positive experiences your dog has with others and eliminate the negative ones.

As I’ve touched on in the past, dogs are phenomenal at communicating with body language. It’s in our best interest to understand how our dogs communicate physically with us as well as with other dogs and people. If you don’t pay attention to the cues, you may end up with changes in behavior that seem to arise from out of nowhere despite there having been numerous warning signs.

One example of poor play behavior is when one dog (often a puppy or younger dog in this case) is perpetually bothering another dog to play who is uninterested or needs a break. If this behavior is allowed, one possible outcome might be that this playful dog never learns to read when it’s time to stop pestering. Even worse, the uninterested dog could snap or bite the nagging dog after warning attempts have failed to stop him/her. If you notice that your dog or another is relentlessly attempting to play with an uninterested dog, calmly separate them or redirect the playful dog with treats, a toy or to play with you instead.

Another example of unfavorable conduct is when one dog seems to be controlling play the entire time. This is most noticeable when one of the dogs is constantly on top, continually pinning the other dog down and often playing a bit too rough. Although this may or may not seem to bother the other dog, it’s a behavior that shouldn’t be allowed to persist. It’s important that your dog learn appropriate play in which both dogs thoroughly enjoy themselves and don’t feel intimidated. If you witness this behavior. separate the dogs and give them time to cool off before resuming play. You can also try to convince the ‘top dog’ to lay down when the other dog approaches with positive reinforcement or tire the dog out before a playdate so that he/she plays in a calmer manner.

Whether or not a dog is pinned down, body language can still reveal tension in one or both dogs. If either dog seems alert with his/her tail up stiff, ears back, mouth drawn, tongue flicking out, side eye, yawning or stiff posture, they are nervous rather than calm and playful. It isn’t unusual for dogs to act this way and to seem on edge when they first meet. Much like humans, dogs can be wary of strangers and who can blame them? If this behavior persists, however, the dogs should be separated or distracted from one another to ease the tension. Sometimes first greetings are best done through a gate or fence where neither dog feels cornered or intimidated. Toys can be used to distract or refocus the dogs but you should never use toys or treats when either of the dogs have shown any signs of resource guarding as this would cause more rigidity.

Once you start paying careful attention to your dog’s play behavior, you can help them avoid negative encounters and learn how to play in a productive, fun way! If your dog knows that you’re there to intervene when things go wrong, they’ll become more confident and calmer in their play style. If they are stopped anytime they get out of control, they will learn that such play behavior doesn’t work and won’t get them what they want, which is more play time! Always pay attention and reward good behavior and yours and your dog’s lives will be more playful and uplifting!

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Dog at the vet

Most dog owners are aware of how scary it can be when its time to pay a visit to the vet or the groomers. This doesn’t have to be the case. With desensitization and counter-conditioning, you can change your dog’s outlook on these events. The truth is that a lot of scary things happen at these places. Between the nail clipping, baths, brushing and dryers at the groomers and the pokes and prods at the vet, your dog has good reason to be wary. If only scary things happen at these places, you’re unlikely to convince them not to be fearful. However, once you mix positivity into the equation, you can make scary places a lot less intimidating!

The first step is to mimic some of the sounds and physical touching that happen at these places while in the comfort of your home. Make sure to have plenty of high value treats on hand and maintain calm body language and voice. As always, start small! If you want to practice the sounds of a dryer, use a hair dryer that has a really low setting. Turn it on without pointing it at them and immediately give your dog praise and treats. Before they have a chance to get anxious, turn it off. Repeat this until they are fully comfortable with the intercation. Eventually you can either turn up the setting or point it at them, but make sure to change only one variable at a time and to MOVE SLOWLY. Work your way up to the highest setting as you point it right at them. You can also use this technique with a dremmel for nail filing. Start with a low setting and with the dremmel a safe distance away as you treat and praise. Slowly move it closer and closer as your dog remains calm and tolerant. Eventually, place the end near their paw so they can feel the vibration as you praise and treat. Once they seem completely accepting of this practice, you can start to touch the dremmel to their nail, one second at a time. As long as you build slowly and use plenty of treats and praise, you should continue to make progress until you are able to calmly file their nails. This training can even help save you a trip to the groomers if you’re feeling like you can continue by yourself!

When practicing for vet visits. you can use the same technique to desensitize your dog to the physical handling the vet may need to do. Start small with light touches focusing on paws, ears, eyes, mouth and then the rest of the body. With lots of positive reinforcement, you can work your way up to stronger touches and manipulations that they may encounter as a vet examines them. You can practice taking their temperature starting with very short and small movements and working your way up to a full reading. One great trick for manipulations is to put peanut butter on the floor or in a kong that will keep them happily busy while you use your hands for other things. Using a safe needle, pin or other object, you can also practice small pokes that may resemble a shot or the physical handling that the Vet may do for an IV. Be careful not to catch your dog off guard and to get them acquainted with these objects and tools before you do anything physical with them. These techniques can take a lot of repetition and you may have to make small steps day after day depending on how sensitive your dog is. Make sure not to jump to quickly from one step to the next as you’ll only increase your dog’s fear rather than get rid of it.

The other part of practicing these positive encounters is to practice visiting these places with lots of treats and praise and without the scary things that may happen during regular appointments. Take your dog to the groomers a couple times a week and give them lots of treats and positive attention as you walk in and around the shop. Do the same with the Vet Clinic. As long as you tell the employees what you are doing, they should be more than happy to have you in and out as often as it takes to make these positive associations. Eventually, you should end up with a dog that is excited when it’s time to go for an appointment or at the very least, remains calm during the entirety of their stay.

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There’s a lot of debate in the dog training world about positive reinforcement vs. aversive training. Most of us have been around long enough to know that aversive training methods were among the most prevalent training methods used until recently. As with corporal punishment and other forms of ‘teaching’ we’ve overcome in the human world, it’s equally important to be constantly reassessing and questioning our methods as we move towards a better understanding of dogs and how they learn. Tons of new evidence shows that canines learn fast with positive reinforcement. They also develop less behavioral problems associated with fear and anxiety and form healthier relationships with their people with positive reinforcement training.

When talking about punishment, we are most often referring to positive punishment in which the positive implies that something is being administered (as opposed to taken away) and punishment means that the desired effect is to minimize the behavior in the future. Therefore, whatever is being administered is undesirable by the dog (i.e. a pop on the collar). It is true that these methods can be successful, but at what cost? With aversive training, we run the risk of inducing fear and anxiety rather than an understanding of what behaviors we are looking for. Even if the dog seems to understand and ceases to exhibit the behavior, what effect has our punishment had on the relationship? Better yet, in simply punishing dogs for a behavior we don’t want to see, we lack the ability to show them what we’d like to see instead. Punishment can be confusing for a dog. Sometimes, the reaction that a dog may receive for a poor behavior choice has the opposite effect of reinforcing the behavior. Consider the fact that with aversive training, dogs tend to get a lot less positive attention overall so they may be more desperate for any form of attention. Another great risk with aversion techniques is that your dog will make negative associations with the environment in which it is punished. Lets use the example of a choke collar. You may have bought the choke collar for your dog because on walks, she gets overly excited about seeing other dogs and pulls strongly towards them. You’re worried your dog might pull your arm off, so you get a choke collar. Consider now what happens when your dog sees another dog on a walk and pulls. Granted, your dog cannot pull as hard without hurting herself, but the choke collar will cause some discomfort with any pulling. Every time that your dog feels this discomfort, she will be excitedly pulling towards another dog. It’s quite likely that the dog will make an association between the discomfort on her neck and the other dogs that she is staring at when this occurs. Now imagine if a form of punishment occurs only when your dog is looking at you! How horrible would it be for your relationship with your dog to be associated with such negativity? Negative associations happen far too often in the world of aversion training.

If given a choice between reacting with punishment and being proactive with positive attention, positivity is the overall better choice. In using positive reinforcement, you are able to direct your dog’s behavior and show them what you are and aren’t looking for. Positive reinforcement occurs when your dog is given a reward (positive) that has the effect of causing the dog to exhibit the behavior more often (reinforcing). When we talk about rewards, this doesn’t mean treats all of the time. Attention, toys, food, walks, sniffs, pets and even a ‘good dog’ can go a long way. By using all things that your dog finds rewarding as a response for positive behaviors, you’ll increase the probability of seeing those behaviors again. Withholding attention and all other rewards for poor behavior teaches your dog that those actions are not rewarding and they will start to exhibit them less and less. Training with positive reinforcement is not only fun and creative, but you get to maintain a healthy relationship with your dog. Overall, it is a better method to avoid stress, fear and anxiety. There are other important factors to make sure you are setting your dog up for success, such as managing the environment (see another blog post about that) and avoiding situations in which your dog is not ready to exhibit good behavior. Wouldn’t you rather set your dog up for success and be able to celebrate their good behaviors than constantly correct them and causing confusion or negative feelings? I find it best to avoid the frustration and negativity aversive techniques cause for both you and your dog… Instead, enjoy training your dog and use training for mental stimulation, an energy outlet and relationship building.

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IMG_0471WE’ve all been there. Just when you think your new puppy or rescue dog is getting the hang of things, you find a nice present left for you on the carpet. As frustrating as house training can be, and as simple as it may seem to you, the idea of going outside doesn’t necessarily come naturally to our pups. Just like with all positive reinforcement, your dog must learn that going outside is more rewarding than inside. This becomes even more tricky when you take into account how rewarding it is to relieve yourself when you’ve really gotta go! That’s why a strict schedule is such an important part of training.

First and foremost, you need to figure out how long your dog can/should go in between potty breaks. A general rule of thumb is up to 1 hour for every month old your puppy is and no more than 8 hours for an adult dog. Some dogs differ in this timeline based on experience, size, how often you feed the dog, and the dog itself. When scheduling meals, make sure that your dog eats no later than 4 hours before bed and that water is no longer available 2 hours before bed. This will help your nighttime routine. Once you’ve established how long your dog can comfortably hold it, make a schedule to take him/her out as often as needed. Make sure to supervise your dog on all trips outside and give him/her a reward for going potty EVERY TIME. Once you head back inside, your dog can have some free time if they succeeded at eliminating outside. This free time to play and roam around can last about half the time in between having gone and your next trip outside. For example, If you are taking your puppy out every 2 hours, they get the first hour as free time. After free time is over, your dog needs to be tethered to you on a leash or in a crate or penned off area until it’s time to go outside again. If your dog didn’t go after 15 minutes the first time, he/she should be leashed, crated or penned for another hour before you go outside and try again. An example of a one day schedule for a 5 month old puppy might look like this:

7 am – Wake up and go outside immediately

7:15 – Free time to play (if dog went potty, otherwise confined and taken outside in an hour)

8 – Breakfast

9 – Leashed to chair while working on computer

11 – Outside

11:15 – Free time to play (if dog went potty, otherwise confined and taken outside in an hour)

1:30 – crate while running errands

3:30 – Outside

3:45 – Free time to play (if dog went potty, otherwise confined and taken outside in an hour)

6 –  Dinner

7 – Long Walk

8 – Free time to play

10 – Supervised in room while watching TV

11 – Outside

11:15 – Put in crate to sleep

*Take dog outside in the night if you hear any whining in crate, otherwise start schedule over the next day

One important factor that people often get use wrongly is punishment. Punishing a dog for going inside is not only unnecessary for training, but often detrimental to the dog’s progress. First off, your dog most likely will not make the correlation between the act of eliminating and you yelling or worse, physically punishing him. Instead he/she will most likely respond to your body language or associate what is on the floor with your anger without actually realizing what he/she did to cause it. Another unfortunate effect of such punishment is that your dog may learn that they shouldn’t go in front of you or where you can see it (Instead of realizing that location is the important factor). This makes training harder as your dog will be likely to go outside on the leash or in your presence and will instead run off and hide when he/she needs to go. Most importantly, any yelling or physical punishment will harm your relationship with your dog. The last thing you want is for your dog to develop fear or anxiety towards you. Instead, use management of the environment to avoid accidents and positive reinforcement to promote going outside! With a strict schedule and lots of encouragement (for yourself and your dog), your dog will be house trained in no time!!


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Positive Reinforcement can only work by finding a suitable reward for good behavior. If you are having a hard time getting your dog to focus in a setting, first assess the situation. Are there too many distractions? Is something more rewarding than the treat? If so, work farther away from the dog’s threshold by decreasing distraction, distance or duration of the behavior you are asking for. If this is a common occurance when training, try a smellier, meatier treat that might be more enticing. If that doesn’t work, your dog may not be as treat motivated as some. Not to worry, there are many other ways to reward behavior! If your dog isn’t as motivated by treats, simply find another method of motivation.


Some dogs love attention more than treats. Try using petting and excited recognition whenever your dog performs the behavior you are looking for. Make sure to also take all attention away (and even walk away if necessary) when your dog isn’t behaving in a manner you like.


Other pups are motivated by movement and love being on the go. One great way to reward these active dogs is to take off in a run with them as soon as they perform the behavior you want. For example, if you are working on reactivity towards other dogs, start running in the opposite direction the second you see another dog (before your dog even has a chance to react).


If your dog is more motivated by toys and playtime, that can Easily be used as a reward as well. Always have a fun toy, ball or chew on you and interact with these toys whenever your dog is exhibiting positive behavior. Throw the ball or play a quick game of tug-of-war as soon as you see the behavior you are looking for.


Even if treats do work, it’s useful and exciting to switch things up a bit. Try using these other techniques alongside treats. Make sure to always be communicating by voice and with your own body language. Most importantly, have fun and your dog will too!

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Is your dog reactive to the sound of the leash? Do they start to get anxious when you put your shoes on or grab your keys? Many dogs have learned that these cues mean something! Whether good or bad, dogs often learn to react accordingly to the stimulus itself. So how do you change that reaction? By desensitizing them to whatever the stimulus is.

Lets use the example of grabbing the leash. Start by picking the leash up and putting it back down repeatedly. Do this often and randomly. The more often this act is not associated with the dog actually going outside, the less likely they are to react as if it is. Practice doing this over and over when you have no intention of going outside.

When it is time to go outside, pick the leash up and start to move towards the dog. If there is any reaction whatsoever, put the leash back down and walk away. Continue this pattern of picking the leash up and putting the leash on the dog and heading outside. If there is any excited response at any time, move back, put the leash down and walk away. You want the dog to realize that the only thing that will get them on the leash and out the door is calmness!

This technique works for excitement or fear. Make sure you are careful not to move to quickly with a fearful or insecure dog. If your dog tends to have separation anxiety and the act of you grabbing the keys causes a response, use this technique of picking up keys repeatedly and also use a distraction (such as a kong filled with peanut butter) when you are about to leave.

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Most people have a harder time teacher their dogs to come when called than they do with most other basic cues. Why does this happen? Many reasons… To start, we have a poor habit of only asking our dogs to come when they are already distracted by something. This is similar to ignoring the well behaved dog laying in the corner and giving attention to the hyper dog who is mouthing you and jumping on you. Then we wonder why they do that more often than lay in the corner?!

We need to work on things at a level the our dog is ready and able to comprehend. After all, we can’t expect a musician to play Mozart in their first year of learning! Equally as important is not asking for something when we know it isn’t going to happen! Remember, if you call your dog to come when they are chasing a squirrel, you’re asking your dog to give up the reward of chasing a squirrel. A dog who has practiced this cue enough times and been rewarded with treats or praise may very well oblige knowing how rewarding it can be. However, a dog still working on this skill is more likely to ignore your cue. Why ask when you know that the word will lose meaning?

Another mistake we often make is to get frustrated at the lack of response and immediately show how angry or upset we are as soon as we get our dog’s attention. What message does this send? Well, to a dog, this reaction would likely feel like a punishment for coming to you. If we punish our dog when they eventually come, are we convincing them to do it quicker next time? NO!

So how do we successfully work on a recall? We start small, just like everything else. In the house with no distractions, call your dog’s name or use exciting noises or movements to entice your dog to come. The second they start moving towards you, say the word “come” and then “good” followed by a treat upon arrival. Why don’t we say “come” before they start moving towards you? Because we don’t want to lose the meaning of the word. This prevents us from using the word “come” over and over without the response we are looking for. In fact, if your dog is already very selective of when they choose to respond to the cue, you should actually start over with a new word such as “here”.

Once you’ve gotten the hang of things with no distraction indoors, move outside when there is little to no distraction and work out there. Remember to slightly increase only one of three factors (distance, duration or distraction) as you continue to move forward in training. Eventually, you can have a dog that will come from across the park right in the middle of a squirrel chase.

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One of the absolute best training tools is the ‘Look at That’ method (or LAT as it’s known in the world of dog trainers) and it has many implications. What better way to get your dog used to a calm reaction to a stimulus than to give them a reward as they calmly watch the stimulus go by? This technique is extremely helpful in reactive and fearful dogs. You can stage a training session with a friend if your dog is reactive to people, or another pet that is under a friend’s control if your dog is reactive towards other pets. You can even practice this with wildlife if you are able to stay outside the threshold and move away if the stimulus moves in your direction. If by yourself, a park is a good place to start, just choose where you post up wisely. For this example, I will explain for a dog that is reactive towards other dogs. To start, simply ask your dog to sit (or lay down, although not all dogs like to stay in a down position when there are things happening around them) in an area where there are no current distractions with high quality treats to reward them. Choose a spot that is far enough away from any stimulus that might elicit a response, a spot that it is just barely outside the threshold of your dog’s likeliness of reacting. Make sure this spot will remain just outside that threshold so for the duration of the training. If your dog reacts at any point, move farther away, you are too close! Once you have your dog in a sit or down, wait for any dog nearby that you are looking to practice with. As a dog approaches, have your body in between your dog and the dog nearby and slowly allow your dog to look at this other dog. As your dog sees the other dog, say ‘good’ and reward with a treat. The idea is that your dog won’t have time to react to this other dog and will instead focus on a yummy treat that it has been rewarded for not reacting and staying calm. If your dog seems to be too fixated and starts to elicit a reaction, move in front of his/her view and continue to talk calmly and reward as long as no reaction occurs. Once you are able to repeat this exercise for a few sessions with at least a handful of stimuli walking by each time, you can practice a little bit closer to the stimulus. Eventually, the threshold for your dog’s reactivity will be closer and closer until you can practice walking by other dogs (or people or wildlife). Such a simple yet effective technique!

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Wanting to teach your pup a new trick, but not sure how to get them there? Try breaking it down into small steps that your dog and you can be successful at! Start with the basics and make sure you dog understands a ‘touch’ command to get them excited about using a food lure. Teach ‘touch’ by putting a hand out (without a treat) and waiting for your dog to become curious enough to inspect. The second their nose touches, say ‘touch’ followed by a positive reward marker (click or ‘good’) and treat. Continue this until they are good at touching on command. Once they have this down, they will be more inclined to follow a food lure. Remember that you can be as creative as you’d like using the lure to get your pup into a ‘down’, ‘roll over’, jump through a hoop and much much more. Just make it easy at first and reward for small steps towards what you are looking for! For example; if you are trying to work on a ‘roll over’, start with a down and then drag your lure along their hip until they start to roll onto their back. Make sure to reward these steps at first and then slowly reward more and more turning until they have made it all the way over. The more creative you are, the more mentally stimulating it is for your pup and the more fun you can have!

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